Amateur Radio Newsline Report 1842 - November 30 2012

21:53 Fernando Luiz de Souza 0 Comments

Amateur Radio Newsline report number 1842 with a release
date of November 30, 2012 to follow in 5-4-3-2-1.

The following is a QST.  The FCC issues a rule making
proposal aimed at implementing the 2007 World
Radiocommunications Accords; the NTSB says it wants to end
all kinds of distracted driving; South Africa's ham radio
community is told it will have to re-apply for their
licenses and the 8th Global Amateur Radio Emergency
Communications Conference is called a major success.  Find
out the details are on Amateur Radio NewslineT report number
1842 coming your way right now.

(Billboard Cart Here)



The FCC has issued ET Docket 12-338 that if passed as
written is pretty good news for ham radio.  Bill Pasternak,
WA6ITF, is in the newsroom with the details:


ET Docket 12-338 released on Tuesday, November 20th proposes
modify the rules governing a number of communications
services for amateur radio which falls under Part 97 of its
rules, the proposed changes are quite positive.

Starting at the low end of the electromagnetic spectrum and
working our way up, Docket 12-338 proposes the creation of a
permanent albeit shared allocation from 135.7-137.8 kHz with
a power output of 1 watt effective radiated power to an
isotropic radiator.  To those who have never heard the term
isotropic radiator, this is a theoretical point
source of electromagnetic waves that emits the same
intensity of radiation in all directions.  Translated into
everyday language it really means hams will only be able to
transmit a few hundred milliwatts of power if that.

Now going up a few hundred kilohertz to the 160 mter band.
That where Docket 12-338 proposes to change the Amateur
Radio Service allocation to make 1800 through 2000 kHz a
primary amateur service allocation.

By way of background, historically, the 1715 to 2000 kHz
band was allocated exclusively to the Amateur Service.  In
1953, the FCC removed the 1715 to 1800 kHz segment from the
Amateur Radio Service and allocated the 1800 to 2000 kHz
band to the Amateur Service on a shared basis with the
Radionavigation Service.  Then in 1983, the FCC allocated
the 1800 to 1900 kHz band to the Amateur Service on an
exclusive basis and the 1900 to 2000 kHz band to
the Radiolocation Service on a primary basis and to the
Amateur Service on a secondary basis.

Lastly, in the WRC-07 Table Clean-Up Order, the FCC combined
the 10 to 10.45 GHz and 10.45 to 10.5 GHz bands in the
Federal Table of Allocations. In doing so, the frequency
band was inadvertently not changed to 10 to 10.5 GHz. To fix
this the FCC will revise the text of three footnotes that
pertain to this spectrum by adding the existing Amateur-
Satellite Service allocation to the list of permitted non-
federal services.  It will also order that non-federal
stations in the Radiolocation Service not cause harmful
interference to the Amateur Service in the 10 to 10.5 GHz

As we said, its pretty good news for ham radio here in the

From the studio in Los Angeles, Im Bill Pasternak, WA6ITF.


If approved as written, these changes will implement
allocation decisions from the 2007 World Radiocommunication
Conference that concern those portions of the radio
frequency spectrum between 108 MHz and 20.2 GHz by making
specific updates to the rules in this frequency range.  You
can download the full text of ET Docket 12-338 at as a Word
document at  (FCC)



The National Transportation Safety Board wants to eliminate
all driver distraction and is broadening its focus on the
use of portable electronic devices in all types of vehicles.
The issue is part of the NTSB's recently released "2013 Most
Wanted List."  Amateur Radio Newsline's Norm Seeley, KI7UP,
is here with the details:


While acknowledging that distracted driving didn't begin
when people began making calls or texting in the car, the
National Transportation Safety Board still says that
portable electronic devices that do not directly support the
task at hand have no place in any vehicles.  This includes
automobiles planes, trains, and just about any other vessel
you might be able to think of.  As such it argues that
states and regulators can set the proper tone by banning the
nonessential use of such devices in all areas of

The NTSB says that young drivers are more likely to use
portable electronic devices while behind the wheel and
therefore are especially at risk.  It urges that laws,
education, and enforcement efforts should place special
emphasis on curbing the use of portable electronic devices
by these younger drivers.

The NTSB goes on to say that companies should develop and
vigorously enforce policies to eliminate distractions.  It
also says that manufacturers can assist by developing
technology that disables these devices when in reach of

But the NTSB has some strong opposition from the Consumer
Electronics Association or CEA.  That organization says that
while it applauds the effort, it also notes that the NTSB
misses the mark on the use of portable electronics in
vehicles.  It says that calling for an abstinence only
approach, the NTSB ignores established realities of human
behavior.  It also claims that in-vehicle technology when
used correctly can make for vastly safer roadways.

The CEA says that rather than calling for broad regulations
or outright bans, policymakers should encourage the use of
the many innovative driver safety technologies coming on to
the marketplace.  The CEA notes that it has already
forwarded the NTSB a list of third-party applications that
promote safe use of portable technologies in the automobile.

How any of this might affect mobile or even hand held
pedestrian portable operations in the future by ham radio
operators and other users of two-way radio is at this time
unknown.  But the NTSB stand seems to be that any and all
forms of distraction must be removed from the public's hands
while in transit.  And that's not likely to sit well with
the public at large.

For the Amateur Radio Newsline, I'm Norm Seeley, KI7UP. In
Scottsdale, Arizona.


It should be noted that the National Transportation Safety
Board is an independent body that has no authority to enact
transportation policy, nor to force the federal government
to make transportation policy changes.  However it makes
recommendations to governments, industry and the public and
uses its "Most Wanted" list as a way to highlight changes
that it is advocating.  (RW)



All South African radio amateurs are going to have to
reapply for their licenses.  This is according to the South
African Radio League which says its liaison committee met
with that nation's telecommunications regulatory body
Independent Communications Authority of South Africa.

At that meeting the national society learned that following
an audit by the Auditor General, that the communications
regulator has been instructed to implement regulation 15 of
the nations Radio Frequency Spectrum Regulations.  This is a
law that stipulates that an amateur radio license can only
be renewed for up to five years after which a new
application has to be submitted.  Because of this, all South
Africa licensed radio amateurs will be required to re-apply
for a license for the period of April 1st 2013 through March
31st 2018.

The South Africa Radio League says that the details as to
how this will be accomplished are expected to be made public
in the next few weeks.  Until that time, South African hams
should do nothing.  As soon as information is made available
the South Africa Radio League announce it via its news
bulletin service system and make forms available on its
website at  (SARL, ICASA)



From the United States of America, We are the Amateur Radio
Newsline, heard on bulletin stations around the world
including WMRP FM on 104.7 MHz serving Flint Michigan.

(5 sec pause here)



The 8th Global Amateur Radio Emergency Communications
Conference also known as GAREC 2012 was held recently in
Port Dickson, Malaysia.  We have an updated report on what
transpired at that gathering from WIA Newsman Graham Kemp,


Attending the conference on November 12 to 14 were delegates
from nine countries under this year's theme of 'One world,
One commitment'.

Among the presentations was one on the Mobile Emergency
Weather System which assists authorities using simple
equipment and training.

There were status reports from various countries and these
highlighted the differences and similarities in approach to
emergency planning.  While solutions may not be easy to
find, sharing the problems and allowing individual countries
to recognize that they were not alone, provides valuable
support to the Global community.

GAREC-2012 included two practical activities.  These
enhanced inter-personal relationships enabling delegates to
work together more efficiently in future.

Future conferences may seek to involve partners in emergency
response, such as the International Federation of the Red
Cross and the ITU, in accord with the existing Memoranda of

The delegates thanked the Malaysian Amateur Radio
Transmitters Society in hosting this successful conference.

For the Amateur Radio Newsline. I'm Graham Kemp, VK4BB, of
the WIA News in Australia.


The next GAREC is in Zurich, Switzerland on June 25 to 27,
2013. All groups and organizations involved in Amateur Radio
Emergency Communications are invited to attend to share
their knowledge and learn from others.  (WIA News)



In the wake of Hurricane Sandy, a disaster-readiness fair
that highlighted solar oven cooking, water storage, 72-hour
emergency kits and amateur radio communication
demonstrations has been held in Temecula, California.  The
event, hosted by the Temecula Stake of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, took place on Saturday,
November 10th.

At the event dozens of tables with information and
demonstrations on topics pertinent to emergency preparedness
were set up in and around the church facility.  There were
also two presentations on food storage and earthquake
preparedness was given by specialists in those areas.

Gordon Neuls, N6ELS, manned a booth promoting amateur radio
certification.  Members of the Temecula Citizen Corps were
on hand to raise awareness of the need to be ready for
natural disasters and to promote the Community Emergency
Response Team operations.  It was noted that in the case of
a disaster where normal lines of communication are
interrupted, amateur radio can be used to relay information,
as well as to send for help and other assistance.

According to the Temecula Press Enterprise, the Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has long been an advocate
of emergency preparedness.  It noted that the church
leadership encourages each of its members to have a year's
supply of food and emergency items, be self-reliant and free
of debt.  (Temecula Press Enterprise)



Amateur radio operators who were among the first responders
following an Earthquake that hit Guatemala have been thanked
for their efforts.  WIA Newsman Robert Broomhead, VK3DN has
the details:


The rescue and relief work in San Marcos, Guatemala, a
mountainous region bordering Mexico that was hit by a 7.4
scale earthquake claiming the lives of at least 52 people
earlier this month, was aided by emergency communications
provided by radio amateurs.

International Amateur Radio Union Region 2 Emergency
Communication Coordinator, Cesar Pio Santos HR2P said he was
very proud of the work done during and after the earthquake
on November 8, despite the difficult times.

Cesar HR2P thanked the members of the Club de
Radioficionados de Guatemala for their outstanding efforts.
He was responding to a report from Marco Aurelio TG 8 AMP,
who was in charge of the emergency network. About 10,000
houses have been affected by the earthquake with authorities
setting up 11 rescue centers for the homeless.

This has been VK3DN, reporting from Melborne.


According to news reports, this was the worst quake to hit
Guatemala since 1976.  Thats when a 7.5 magnitude temblor
caused the deaths of about 23,000 people in one of the worst
natural disasters of the time.   (VK3PC, HR2P, WIA News)



The Planning Commission in Ridgecrest California was to hold
a public hearing November 27th to recommend the City Council
amend a city zoning ordinance that would help hams in that
city erect antennas.  The amendment request, should it be
approved by the city council at a later date, could permit
amateur ham radio antennas in excess of 35 feet to be
erected subject to a ham obtaining a Conditional Use permit.

The agenda relates directly to a previous request by
Ridgecrest resident Steven Rainey, N6MVX, to put up a 55-
foot tower on his property back in September.  Rainey could
not receive a conditional use permit for the proposed tower
following a public hearing.  This is because the Planning
Commission does not have the authority to grant such permits
under the current municipal code.

According to a city staff report, the amendment request,
should it be approved by the city council at a later date,
could permit amateur radio antennas and windmill towers in
excess of 35 feet to be erected subject to a Conditional Use
permit.   City Planner Matthew Alexander is quoted as saying
ham radio operators represented a strong asset to the city
in case of emergencies.

More is on-line at



NOAA - SKYWARN Recognition Day is December 1st from 0000 to
2400 hours UTC and everyone is invited to take part.

NOAA - SKYWARN Recognition Day was developed in 1999 by the
National Weather Service and the American Radio Relay
League.  Its purpose is to celebrate the contributions that
volunteer SKYWARN radio operators make to the National
Weather Service

As we go to air some 70 NWS ham radio operations are
registered for the 24 hour operating event.  These stations
are expected to be operational on the High Frequency bands
plus 6, 2 and 70 centimeters along with Echolink as well as

For more informational please visit the official NOAA -
SKYWARN Recognition Day website at
day.  (PAPA, NWS)



The Handihams have make known that their 2013 Radio Camp is
tentatively scheduled for the Woodland campus of Camp
Courage in late July and early August.  The tentative dates
are July 28th through August 2nd making travel days for the
campout Sunday and Friday. No pricing has been announced.



The Handihams have also announced that Courage Center Camps
and Friendship Ventures have entered a joint partnership.
This to create a new camp organization to serve people with

The new organization founded on November 19th will be called
Camps of Courage and Friendship.  At least that will be its
title until a formal name study is completed in 2013.

Campers, volunteers and staff will see traditional programs
continue in 2013.  However, behind the scenes, new methods
and approaches will be developed to incorporate the
strengths of both organizations.  More about this new joint
venture is on-line at



The World Wide Radio Operators Foundation will be presenting
a webinar on towers and how to work safely on and around one

Titled "Tower Work --Tips, Techniques, and Tools," this
presentation taught by John Crovelli, W2GD, and Don Daso,
K4ZA. During the session the two will outline things that
they have learned from almost 100 years of combined
experience, focusing on safety, cost savings, and of coarse
problem solving.

The hour long webinar will begin at 9 PM Eastern Standard
Time on Wednesday, December 12th which equates to Thursday,
December 13th at 02:00 UTC.  Registration is free to hams
world-wide at



Some names in the news.  A ham radio operator will soon be
heading up the Lyndon B. Johnson Spaceflight Center in
Houston, Texas.  This as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden
announces that Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, KB5TZZ, as the next
Director of the historic space development facility.

Ochoa was the first Hispanic woman to go into space.  Since
September 2007 she has served as Johnson Spaceflight Center
Deputy Director.  Prior to that position she worked as
Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations at JSC and in
September of 2006 became Director of Flight Crew Operations.

Ellen Ochowa will be facility's 11th Director.  She will
also be its first Hispanic, first radio amateur and the
second female to serve in that position.  KB5TZZ will take
over the reins at JSC from Michael Coats when he retires at
the end of the year.  (NASA, Southgate)



The founder of the world's most remote radio station, Radio
KOLD in Antarctica has turned 90.  Steve Grimsley, VK2ZP,
set up Radio KOLD at Wilkes Base in 1961, and the station is
still broadcasting. Family, friends and former colleagues
gathered in the Australian town of Binalong to celebrate
VK2ZP's birthday. (WIA News)



Congratulations are extended to Bill Unger, VE3XT who was
recently selected as the Radio Amateurs of Canada Director
for Ontario North East.  Unger ran unopposed, eliminating
the need for a balloted election.  VE3XT has been an amateur
operator since 1970 and has been involved in many aspects of
the hobby.  His term as Director will be for two years
starting January 1, 2013 and ending on December 31, 2014.



This is ham radio news for today's radio amateur.  From the
United States of America, We are the Amateur Radio Newsline
with links to the world from our only official website at and being relayed by the volunteer
services of the following radio amateur:

(5 sec pause here)



If you are an Information Technology or two-way radio
technician and planning a trip to Mexico, you might not
carry an H-T on a belt clip where it can be seen.  This is
because at least one drug gang seems to be kidnapping and
enslaving those who know two-way radio to build and keep
their private system going.  Amateur Radio Newsline's Cheryl
Lasek, K9BIK, takes a look at the situation south of the


According to a report from Mexican news site Animal
Politico, at least three dozen engineers and
technicians have been kidnapped in the past four years.  And
Felipe Gonzalez  who is the head of Mexico's Senate Security
Committee told Animal Politico that none of the engineers
who disappeared have ever been found.

Mexican authorities blame the notorious drug running gang
the Zeta's for the kidnappings.  The Mexican military is
trying to dismantle an extensive radio network built and
operated by the drug cartel but to date authorities have not
had much luck shutting it down.  Not only is much of the
equipment super-easy to replace, but the drug runners have
apparently found some unwilling assistance by kidnapping and
enslaving technicians to help build it.  Among them is at
least one IBM employee and several communications
technicians from a firm owned by Mexico's largest
construction company.

Last year the Mexican military found and dismantled one such
drug runners radio network spread across northeastern Mexico
that included 167 radio antennas sites.   As recently as
this past September, Mexican marines found a 295-foot-high
transmission tower in Veracruz State.

The bottom line:  It seems the drug gangs have discovered
that two-way radio is a tool that they will not be without
but the Mexican government is doing all it can to take these
clandestine operations off the air.

For the Amateur Radio Newsline, I'm Cheryl Lasek, K9BIK,
near Zion, Illinois.


One of the best stories in the English language that
explains in depth the safety issue to engineers and
technicians in Mexico is on the World Disaster Report
website.  Its on-line at
(Animal Politico,, World Disaster Report,
other news sources)



As of this past October 10th, Hong Kong's new Digital
Broadcasting Corporation is off the air.  This after only
one month of operation.  The stated reason is that they
simply have run out of money to continue operations.

According to the South China Morning Post, the station's co-
founder Albert Cheng King Hon wanted the government to
intervene between the shareholders, but Secretary for
Commerce and Economic Development turned down the request
for mediation.

Digital Broadcasting Corporation's financial woes have meant
that the staff was not paid for the month of October, or
offered severance.  Nonetheless, at least one talk show host
indicated that he would like to continue broadcasting
without pay, but some doubted the practicality of this
goodwill gesture.

Disagreements over what to do with the company's assets
extend to questions over whether or not these should be
liquidated to pay employees or allow the board members to
buy back shares at a discounted rate.  Digital Broadcasting
Corporation license required it to formally launch its
service by September 21st, 2012, and also to provide seven
24-hour programming channels.  (RW)



The weekly 40 meter BCDX Net from South India celebrated its
24th anniversary on Sunday, November 25th.   This Net began
operation on Sunday, November 27, 1988 by a small group of
radio amateurs that included 4S7VK, VU2FOT, VU2JOS along
with some very interested shortwave listeners.

The BCDX Net is now held on Sunday morning's at 03:00 UTC on
7 dot 085 MHz Lower Sideband for the advantage of those who
are keenly interested in Broadcast Band DXing.  According to
its operators, the unique thing about this net is that is
helped hams to become SWL DX'ers and SWL's to get their
amateur licenses.  The current net control station is VU3SIO
and assisted from time to time by VU3BGK and VU2JOS.



The Maritime Amateur website was launched back in March 2008
with the purpose of sharing information among radio amateurs
in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island of
Canada. Now in its fifth year, there has been over 43
thousand hits and has a membership of over 110 ham radio

From the homepage, there are links to local, national and
international news, CANWARN, maritime nets and numerous
others sits of interest to hams that spend time on the water
or who just want to be of service to  their communities.
You can check it out at www (dot) maritimeamateur (dot) ca.
For more information please contact Jim Langille by e-mail
to  (VE1JBL)



The design of the Fox-1A has been updated.  During the 2012
Symposium AMSAT Vice-President Engineering, Tony Monteiro,
AA2TX and the Fox Engineering team presented the
latest status on the design, development, and construction
of the Fox-1A satellite project. Fox-1A is is a one unit
size cubesat which will carry an FM repeater transponder to
replace the ageing AO-51.  (ANS)



The Proceedings of the AMSAT-NA 30th Symposium and AMSAT-NA
Annual Meeting, held October 26th to the 28th in Orlando,
Florida have been put up for sale at the on-line AMSAT
Store.  The proceedings contain over 30 articles on subjects
ranging from current satellite operations to updates on the
Fox Project.  For information on pricing and shipping or to
oplace an order please visit on the
World Wide Web.  (ANS)



The news never stops and neither do we.  From the United
States of America we are the Amateur Radio Newsline with
links to the world from our only official website at and being relayed to you by the following
bulletin station:

(5 sec pause)



On the air, keep an ear open for special event
station TM1TARA to be on air between December 8th to the
10th.  This to commemorate the scientific voyages of French
polar vessel the Tara.

Tara Expeditions has been organizing missions aboard this
research schooner for the past 9 years.  The goal is to
learn more about the impact of climate change on the planets
ecosystems.  So far Tara has accomplished eight successful
expeditions including voyages to Greenland, Antarctica,
Patagonia, southern Georgia, and the Arctic.  Its latest
voyage was described as world-wide known as Tara Oceans.

For this special celebration operations will be conducted
by F8DVD and F8IJV from Paris, France during the Tara
exhibit.  Look for them on 20 through 10 meters on SSB.  A
special color QSL card will be printed and will be sent via
the Bureau or direct.  QSL with a self addressed envelope
and 2 IRC's - if you can still get them -- to F8DVD.



In DX, CT1FTR is currently on the air from the
Sudan as ST2FT.  He is active on High Frequency bands using
SSB and PSK31.  If you make contact QSL via CT2GBU or
electronically using eQSL.
OH0XX is currently active from Contadora Island in the
Archipelago Perlas as HP1XX.  Bands and modes are not known
but if you work him please QSL via home call.

K4UUK plans to operate from Belize May 4th to the 18th 2013
as V31RD. He will be active on 80 through 6 meters on SSB.
QSL via K4UUK.

GM3YTS , GM4FDM , GM0GAV , GM3POI will be active from Tuvalu
Island from March 12th to the 23rd 2013 as T2GM.  They will
be operational on all of the High Frequency bands with an
emphasis on contacts with Europe.  QSL via GM4FDM

AA4NC will be operational from Montserrat February 12th to
the 20th of 2013 as VP2ME.  He he also plans to be active in
ARRL DX CW Contest.  QSL this station electronically using
Logbook of the World.

Four British hams plan to be active from Easter
Island February 13th to the 21st as XR0YG.  They will be
operational on High Frequency bands only.  An actual guide
to their operating hours and QSL routes is expected to be
announced shortly.

Lastly, a team of operators from Germany will be on the air
from Samoa next April 4th to the 18th as 5W0M.  They will be
operational using various modes on 80 through 6 meter plus
and 2m E-M-E.  QSL the main operation to DL4SVA direct, via
the bureau or OQRS.  For EME QSO's send cards via DL9MS.
(Above from various DX news sources)



And finally this week you might want to say that everything
old is new again.  This after Professor Darren Hayes of Pace
University's Seidenberg School of Computer Science and
Information Systems reports on the aftermath of Hurricane
Sandy.  According to Professor Hays, it appears that older
technology played a vital role to assist the public after
this disaster.  Amateur Radio Newsline's Bruce Tennant,
K6PZW has the details:


In an article in the news blog The Hill, Professor Darren
Hays notes that the Verizon network suffered widespread
outages and with no electricity, telecommunications were
problematic.  The old corded telephones were plugged in by
those who still had them and there were lines for payphones.
For those of you to young to remember these are coin
operated telephones that in many places are nothing more
than a distant memory.

Professor Hays also had some nice words for the amateur
radio community.  He says that others resorted to using ham
radio to communicate, which was found to be very effective.
Hays pointed to ham radio networks like ARES and RACES which
are dedicated to communications outages.  Hays who holds the
call KI6UEI noted that a battery-powered radio was at one
point his only connection to the outside world during the

Hays article notes that as the recovery in the aftermath of
Hurricane Sandy continues, questions are being raised about
our nation's preparedness for emergencies.  On Friday,
November 9th it was reported that two Congressmen, U.S.
Representatives Peter King and Steve Israel, were requesting
that the military assume control of Long Island Power
Authority.  This in an effort to restore electricity to more
than 150,000 homes and businesses which at that point still
without mains power.

Back in 2006 the newspaper Newsday reported that the Long
Island Power Authority was warned that its critical
infrastructure could not handle a major storm.  One of the
issues noted was that the utility was utilizing a 25-year
old mainframe computer system that could not track power
outages or other critical functions like monitoring for
rotting utility poles.

For the Amateur Radio Newsline, I'm Bruce Tennant, K6PZW, in
Los Angeles.


You can read the entire article by Professor Hays on-line at  (The Hill)



With thanks to Alan Labs, AMSAT, the ARRL, the CGC
Communicator, CQ Magazine, the FCC, the Ohio Penn DX
Bulletin, Radio Netherlands, Rain, the RSGB, the Southgate
News, TWiT-TV and Australia's W-I-A News, that's all from
the Amateur Radio NewslineT.  Our e-mail address is newsline
(at) arnewsline (dot) org.  More information is available at
Amateur Radio Newsline'sT only official website located at

A reminder to those of you who still receive these newscasts
over our 661-296-2407 dial in telephone line rater than
downloading the MP3 file from our website or from the RSS
feed.  We are still giving consideration to discontinuing
telephone feed service as a cost cutting measure.  But
before we do, we want to know how many people are actually
using it.

If you are one of those who call in each week on the phone
and have not already done so, please send us a note telling
us who you are and the reason you are using telephone access
rather than simply downloading the newscast from the

Our address is the Amateur Radio Newsline, 28197 Robin
Avenue, Saugus California, 91350.   Or, as we said, you can
e-mail us at newsline (at) arnewsline (dot) org.  We look
forward to hearing from you.

For now, with Bill Pasternak, WA6ITF, at the editors' desk,
I'm Don Wilbanks, AE5DW, in Southern Mississippi saying 73
and we thank you for listening.

Amateur Radio NewslineT is Copyright 2012.  All rights

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